Details of Foundation in Construction?
A foundation alias ground sill is the low part or sub-structure of an architectural structure that is artificially constructed on the soil to transmit loads from the structure to the ground securely. Foundation of a structure is built up underneath the ground level with the purpose of making the lateral strength of the structure better. The solid ground on which the foundation is supported is known as the Foundation Bed.
On the basis of the condition and bearing ability of soil and nomenclature of structure, the foundation is categorized as shallow foundation and deep foundation.
If the depth of the foundation is under or similar to its width or if the foundation is built up at proper shallow depth, it is called shallow foundation. A shallow foundation delivers the load to a stratum found in a shallow depth. Shallow foundations are generally found in building up low rise structures.
If the depth of the foundation surpasses its width or if the foundation is developed at considerably large depth, it is call deep foundation. The deep foundation transmits the load to a wider depth under the ground surface. Deep foundation is intended for high rise or multi-storey structures.
1) Shallow Foundations
i. Spread footing or open trench foundations
ii. Grillage foundations
iii. Mat or Raft foundations
iv. Stepped foundations
v. Inverted arch foundations
vi. a) Wall Footing
vii. b) Reinforced cement concrete footing
viii. c) Combined footing
ix. d) Eccentrically loaded footing
Deep Foundations - i. Pile foundations, ii. Well foundations, iii. Caisson foundations
To erect a foundation, trenches are excavated thicker into the soil unless a solid stratum is attained. To make the base foundation, concrete is poured into this trench. These trenches are combined with reinforcement cage to raise the foundation stability.
The estimated steel rods which are provided outwards perform as the bones and should be attached with the substructure above. Once the foundation work is completed successfully, the structure of the building is started.
The construction of the foundation can be done with concrete, steel, stones, bricks etc. The material and the type of foundation selected for the desired structure depends on the design loads and the type of underlying soil.
The design of the foundation must incorporate different effects of construction on the environment. For example, the digging and piling works done for deep foundation may result in adverse disturbance to the nearby soil and structural foundation. These can sometimes cause the settlement issues of the nearby structure. The objective of developing of a foundation is to withstand the attack of injurious substances from outside.
The foundation for each structure is made by adhering to the following guidelines:-
1. The underlying soil beneath the foundation structure does not experience shear failure
2. The settlement should be occurred throughout the first service load or should have been within the limit
3. Acceptable bearing pressure should be described as the pressure the soil can resist devoid of any failure.
Objects of Foundation:
1. To allocate the load of structure on wider area to maintain the intensity of load under the safe bearing capacity of the underlying soil.
2. To allocate the load uniformly on the underlying soil to avoid any unequal settlement of foundation.
3. To arrange leveled and hard surface for the super-structure to be constructed over it.
4. To raise the strength of the structure completely against sliding, overturning or other distressing forces like wind, rain, earthquake etc.
For more information, go through the following article theconstructor.org