Common types of pipe fittings in a plumbing system

In this construction video tutorial, you will gather knowledge on various types of pipe fittings which are generally utilized in plumbing system. The video is very useful for the mechanical engineers and other construction professionals.

The role of a fitting in pipe systems is to attach straight pipe or tubing sections, adjust with various sizes or shapes and for other purposes, like regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.

In a plumbing system, the following types of fittings are used :-

Elbow ? An elbow is set up among two lengths of pipe (or tubing) to facilitate changing the direction of flow. Normally, there are different types of elbows like 90? or 45? or 22.5?angle. The ends are machined for butt welding, threaded (generally female), or socketed. When the sizes for ends vary, it is called a reducing (or reducer) elbow.

Reducer ? A reducer is provided for accommodating a change in pipe size to match hydraulic flow requirements of the system or adjust with current piping of a diverse size. Generally reducers remain concentric, but eccentric reducers are also utilized if required to sustain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level.

Coupling ? A coupling attaches two pipes. If their sizes fluctuate, the fitting is called as a reducing coupling, reducer, or an adapter. Two types of couplings are available like ?regular" and "slip".

A regular coupling contains a small ridge or stop inside, to avoid over-insertion of a pipe, and consequently under-insertion of the other pipe segment (which may occur in a defective connection). A slip coupling alias a repair coupling is purposely developed devoid of this internal stop, to facilitate it for being slipped into place in rigid locations.

Union - A union is required to disconnect the pipes securely for maintenance purpose as well as for substituting the fixtures. With union, connection and disconnection can be smoothly done several times as per requirement. It comprises of three parts like a nut, a female end and a male end. If the female and male ends are united, the joint is sealed with nuts by pressing the two ends firmly together.

Tee - A tee is applied to unite (or separate) fluid flow. There are female thread sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets and a female-threaded side outlet for it. It is possible to attach pipes having various diameters or adjust the direction of a pipe run, or both.

Cross ? Crosses contain one inlet and three outlets (or contrary), and frequently comprise of solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends. Cross fittings may strain pipes when temperature fluctuates as they are situated at the center of four connection points.

Plug - A plug sets within the pipe segment or fitting to which it is associated. In a threaded plumbing system, plugs contain male threads. Different plug types are available which range from mechanical, pneumatic-disk, single-size pneumatic rubber, multi-size pneumatic and flow-through, and high-pressure.

Cap - Caps, normally liquid- or gas-tight, provide a cover to the open end of a pipe. A cap is connected with the outside of a pipe, and may contain a solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior. The outside of an industrial cap may come in various shapes like round, square, rectangular, U- or I-shaped, or may have a handgrip.

To gather more information, watch the following exclusive video tutorial.

Common types of pipe fittings in a plumbing system