Varieties of Scaffoldings that are used in Construction
Staging and scaffolding, which are both temporary structures, are used to support workers and materials for the construction, maintenance, and repair of buildings, bridges, and all other man-made structures.
A scaffold is often used on site to gain access to heights and areas that might otherwise be difficult to reach. It is possible to die or sustain serious injuries on scaffolding that is not safe. In addition to formwork and shoring, scaffolding is used for concerts, grandstand seating, access towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes, and art installations. The type of scaffolding used depends on the type of construction that is being carried out.
Some useful terms that are related to scaffolding
1. Bracing: Braces connect diagonal members to standards to provide structural support.
2. Guard Rail: In the same way as ledgers, it is used at the working level to provide better protection for the documents.
3. Boarding: During the construction of a board, putlogs are used to support the horizontal member. Masons and materials use this to enable them to work together.
4. Put Logs: Generally speaking, the put logs are the transverse horizontal members of the structure that measure 90 cm in length and are generally placed 120 cm apart. In order to provide the working platform with the support it requires, they are provided.
5. Standard: On the ground, it is supported by a vertical member that runs vertically.
6. Ledgers: A ledger is a longitudinal horizontal member that is connected to a standard on each end.
7. Toe Board: It is a long horizontal board of wood that is used at different levels to complete various tasks.
Varieties of Scaffolding
Generally, there are mainly five types of scaffoldings, they are as follows:
1. Mason’s scaffolding
2. Brick layering scaffolding
3. Tubular Scaffolding or Steel Scaffolding
4. Needle scaffolding
Mason's scaffolding has two frames of the standard at a distance of 1.5 m from the first one, in order to provide a bearing for the putlogs since it is difficult to leave holes in the stone masonry. It is therefore entirely independent of the stone wall for the scaffolding used by the mason to build the wall.
Close mason’s scaffolding
Due to the fact that they are intended to carry heavy loads of heavy blocks of stone and the stresses resulting from the lifting device, they are made stronger by placing them at a relatively close distance from each other so they would be able to carry the weight of the blocks of stone.
Brick layering scaffolding
Scaffolding of this type consists of a series of standards that are fixed to the ground at a height of between 2.4 and 3 meters. A ledger is connected to each standard at every 120 or 150 cm rise between them, so that they may be connected to each other.
In a standard building site, they are provided with rope-lashings that tether them in place and keep them in place whilst construction is in progress. On one end of the putlogs, they are nailed to the ledgers, and then on the other end, they are nailed to the wall holes.
The temporary structure is invariably stiffened with cross braces when scaffolding is high. Rope-lashing is used to tie the poles to the standards to form braces.
A steel scaffold is constructed in a similar manner to a timber scaffold in terms of its design. For this type of construction, the wooden members are replaced by steel tubes that range in diameter from 38 mm to 64 mm, and in place of rope-lacing, a special type of steel couplet or fitting is used to connect the various steel tubes.
A scaffold consists of heavy duty steel tubes with diameters ranging from 40 to 60 millimeters that are used for normal building construction work.
It is important to know that in this type of scaffolding, the uprights or standards are positioned 2.5 to 3 meters apart from one another. In order to hold the standard in place, there is a square or circular base plate on which the standard is welded.
The base plate of the scaffolding is equipped with holes so that it can be spiked to the base of the scaffolding, thereby forming a rigid foundation for the scaffolding.
The distance between ledgers, which are the longitudinal tubes that link the standard, is 1.8 metres. Short tubes or placed logs typically range in length from 1.2 to 1.8 metres.
There is no need to leave large holes on the wall for the putlogs' bearings since they have specific ends that fit into the joints in the wall.
To learn more, watch the following video tutorial.
Video Source: SGK Online Education
The advantages of tubular scaffolding over timber scaffolding include quicker erection and dismantling, greater strength and durability, more fire resistance qualities, as well as the possibility of salvage.
As much as it is more expensive at first, if you consider its several advantages and the number of times it can be used, it is more cost-effective in the end, so it is widely used in today's world, even though it is initially a bit more expensive. There are several types of scaffolding that can be mounted on wheels, such as tubular scaffolding, which can be used for painting walls, underside roofs and so forth.
It is a needle scaffold that is used in situations where scaffolding is needed to provide for a building on the side of a busy road where the construction of ordinary scaffolding will obstruct the traffic on the street.
Using projecting needles, scaffolding is erected from the window corners of string courses. There is a timber beam known as a needle, which is a beam that cantilevers out of the wall through holes drilled in it.
On the inside, the needles are supported on sole pieces and are kept from rising by vertical struts wedged between the needles and the headpieces in order to prevent them from rising. It is held on its side by an inclined strut, which rests on the sill of the window, that supports the projected end of the needle.