Foundation in Construction: Requirements, Varieties and Functions

A building's foundation is one of its most important components. As the lowest part of the structure is below ground level, the foundation provides the structure with its foundation.

It is the foundation that receives and transfers the total load of the building without any settlement of the soil underneath. A proper study and understanding of the ground conditions are vital for placing the foundation of the structure to avoid unequal settlement and foundation failure.

What do you mean by footing?

An important component of a foundation is the footing, which provides stability and prevents unequal settlement. Footings are mainly used for distributing the load from a structure to a larger area.

When are footings used?

Every facility that has a foundation, including homes, businesses, and bridges, utilizes footings. Fences, decks, and other structures that are not affixed to a building also utilize footings.

What are the functions of Foundations?

There are many functions of a Foundation; some of them are as follows:

1. A foundation's main purpose is to distribute a load of a building over a large area to prevent soil overloading.
2. A building's foundation plays a crucial role in ensuring its stability and preventing it from falling over.
3. Having a solid foundation will ensure that the total load of the structure is carried deep into the ground.
4. Building operations are carried out on a level surface provided by the foundation.

What are the different varieties of Footing used in Construction?

In construction, the footings used are divided into four types: individual footings, combined footings, strip footings, and raft or mat foundations. Building type, soil, and weight of the building all affect their choice.

1. Strip Footings

A strip footing is used to support a long foundation wall, such as the side of a house, which is built on a sloped ground. The load-bearing walls that are parallel to one another are also supported by these beams in order to prevent them from colliding.

2. Individual Footings

There are a variety of footing types but individual footings tend to be the most common. The purpose of these types of footing is usually to provide protection for small structures such as porches or sheds. A building may also require individual footings for all four walls of the building if the soil is very soft or if there is a high water table in the area.

3. Mat or Raft Foundation

Buildings are supported by a large slab of concrete called a mat or raft foundation. In situations where the soil is too weak oIn combination footings, two or more foundation walls share the load and are close to each other. There are also times when combined footings are used if one of the foundation walls is much taller than the other Building which is too large to support individual footings, raft foundations are used.

4. Combined Footings

In combination footings, two or more foundation walls share the load and are close to each other. There are also times when combined footings are used if one of the foundation walls is much taller than the other.

What is the process of building footings?

Construction usually begins with the construction of footings after excavation is complete. In order to construct the footing, the hole for the footing must first be dug.

Depending on the type of soil and the size of the building, the depth of the footing hole will vary. Ensure that the hole is deep enough to allow the footing to be below the freeze line and above any soft or loose soils.

Creating the footing follows the excavation of the hole. Pouring concrete into the hole or using pre-made bricks, stones, or concrete blocks can be done this way. In order to support the weight of the building, the footing must extend beyond the edges of the hole.

It is possible to build the foundation walls after the footings have been constructed. There are several materials that can be used as foundation walls, including concrete, stone, brick, and wood. Adding strength and height to the walls is essential to ensure that the building isn't in danger of collapsing under its own weight.

What are some of the requirements of a good foundation?

There are some factors that are required for a good foundation, they are as follows:

1. The Durability of the Foundation
2. The Location of the Foundation
3. The Stability of the Foundation
4. The Settlement of the Foundation

The Durability of the Foundation

In order for the structure to be durable, its foundation should be constructed with durability in mind. It is important to design the foundation in such a way that it can support the Lord of the structure and prevent settlement. During foundation construction, durability should also be taken into account.

The Location of the Foundation

If the foundation is located in such a way that it can be able to support the entire weight of the structure, then it can be considered a strong foundation.

The location of the foundation and its design must be determined by the soil-bearing capacity and the location must be chosen accordingly.

To learn more, watch the following video tutorial.

Video Source: TileMaster - Civil Mentors

The Settlement of the Foundation

Foundations are primarily responsible for preventing settlement. Soil strata play an important role in determining the settlement of the foundation.

When the structure is loaded, there should be no settlement of the foundation and no differential settlement.

The Stability of the Foundation

The foundation is one of the most important components of a building. Its main function is to provide stability for the building, thereby allowing the foundation to safely transfer the load into the soil beneath.

What do you mean by Foundation Engineering?

A foundation engineer is a civil engineer who specializes in designing and studying the foundations of a structure so that the structure can be built on a solid foundation. It is a field of engineering that applies knowledge from the fields of soil mechanics, structural engineering, rock mechanics, and geology to study and design the foundations for buildings.

Foundation in Construction: Requirements, Varieties and Functions